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Osiris also known as Wesir is the Egyptian deity of the underworld, known as duat, and the dead. He is the brother and husband of Isis and the father of Horus. In the earliest stories and myths of Osiris he ruled as pharaoh until he was killed by his brother Set and upon his death became the king of the dead. Set fashioned a coffin for Osiris and tricked him into it whereupon he sealed it and threw it into the Nile. Isis found her husband and breathed life back with the aid of Anubis and so Osiris became the first mummy. Osiris's son, Horus took over as the living pharaoh so that living kings were associated with Horus and upon death became associated with Osiris.

Osiris is usually depicted as a green-skinned mummy with the white crown of Upper Egypt holding crook and flail. His green skin may be reminiscent of his earlier role as a fertility deity. The first recorded mentions of Osiris come from the Pyramid Text in the 5th Century. His later role as god of death and rebirth also closely ties him to the Nile especially with its seasonal and regular flooding and its importance in raising crops. Early historians mention rites to Osiris where beds of soil were fashioned in his image that were planted with seeds with the sprouting plants representing the resurrecting god. This dual role as lord of fertility as well as the dead reveals the Egyptian's deep reverence for nature's cycle.

In his role as god of the dead, Osiris presides over the judgement of the soul. A soul's heart is weighed against the feather of Maat by Anubis while Thoth records the results and forty-two judges determine the fate of the soul. If deemed corrupt, the soul is then fed to the devourer, but if they pass the judgement they are welcomed by Osiris into the afterlife.

Hoodoo psychic readers, spirit workers, and root doctors who practice in the North African religion of ancient Egypt or contemporary Kemetic Neo-Paganism, and who call upon the netjeru on behalf of clients, may petition Osiris for matters of fertility, for the transition of the soul, and communing with the dead.

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