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Ra is the sun god of the Egyptian Pantheon whose main center of worship was found in Heliopolis. During the Old Kingdom, specifically the Fifth Dynasty (2494 to 2345 BC), Ra had become one of the primary deities of the Egyptian Pantheon. As the sun god, Ra was associated with the midday or noon sun who journeyed through the sky on a boat that at night then journeyed through the underworld. In Heliopolis, he was associated with Atum and in later period he was connected with and merged with Horus. Ra also takes on the role of creator deity as he is the god who creates the Ennead, a group of nine deities who were the main gods of the Egyptian pantheon in Helipolis. The Ennead included Ra, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Set, Isis, and Nephthys. Mankind was also created by Ra who fashioned them out of his tears and by giving all of creation secret names. The cat-goddess, Bastet

When he is associated with Horus, Ra is seen as falcon-headed or has a hawk head. When associated with Atum he is depicted as ram-headed. He is often accompanied by other deities in his journey through the sky and the underworld. At night, while he is traveling through the underworld, he does battle with the god of chaos, the serpent Apophis. He is assisted in this battle by Set. He is also connected with Sekhmet who is formed out of the wrathful rays of his eyes. When mankind rebelled against him, he unleashed his destructive eye as Sekhmet who could only be satiated in her blood-lust by being made drunk off of beer disguised as blood. He is usually accompanied by Tehuti who acts as his adviser and scribe. He is also associated with Heka, a minor deity of magical power.

During the New Kingdom, the deity Amun rose to prominence and was merged with Ra to become, Amun-Ra. He was briefly supplanted by Aten, depicted as the solar disk, during the reign of Akhenaten but reemerged after the death of the Pharaoh. Ra is usually depicted with the sun-disk on his head which is a common feature of his images even if his head is depicted differently.

Hoodoo psychic readers, spirit workers, and root doctors who practice in the North African religion of ancient Egypt or contemporary Kemetic Neo-Paganism, and who call upon the netjeru on behalf of clients, may petition Ra for matters of healing, blessing, for protection against chaos and evil, and for various magical purposes.


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